VESPID - PAPER WASP
The picture above shows a paper nest of Polistes exclamans with several adults. This type of nest is attached by one or more pedicels (the number of pedicels often depending on the species) to a substrate. It is generally referred to as an open nest since there is a single tier of cells, and the cells are exposed. The nest is protected to a degree from foraging insects by the addition of repellent chemicals applied by adult wasps to the pedicel (pedicellar smearing). Being volatile, these chemicals (which are produced by abdominal glands on the ventral side of the abdomen) are periodically smeared on the nest pedicel. Since the nest cells are exposed, nest attack by birds and other flying organisms generally comes about from the direction of the exposed cells, and a vast array of pre-stinging defensive behaviors are demonstrated toward an intruder.